Grammar lessons for high school: weeks 1 – 9. Below, I’ve outlined my parts of speech lessons for older students. . . often my first set of grammar activities for high school freshmen.
Grammar lessons for high school. . . during those first weeks of school. Hmmmmmm. I have a method, a method that I created after years of experience. I’ve detailed it below. A few notes about grammar for high school:
- First! I don’t pretend that these older students have never heard these terms before. I know they have, but they probably don’t know them well enough for the manipulation and analysis for which older students should strive. Additionally, my high school classes often have students from numerous feeder schools. To get started, especially with freshmen, I want to even the playing field.
- As a general guide to my high school grammar lessons below, I’ve provided headers in bold. Read the specifics underneath because I work to overlap the material while differentiating for all the levels in my classes.
- Also? I don’t think there is one “right” way for grammar lessons. This high school grammar format works for me during the first quarter of the school year, both for eighth graders and freshmen. (I complete abbreviated and extended versions of this outline for sophomores and seventh graders.) Take what works for your students.
- You can purchase the grammar lessons for high school students I mention below. You don’t have to purchase those exact parts of speech lessons, though. If you already have a parts of speech lesson format that you love, my ideas will work for you too. Plug my ideas where they fit; disregard the rest.
- I have a dozen free grammar lessons that will you can incorporate to any high school grammar program. Download those activities for extra help! You can see my parts of speech lesson planning guide below.
- I completely understand that all high school grammar activities look different for teachers everywhere. Grammar activities for high school might include sentence structure, verbals, or parts of a sentence. Meet your students where they are!
Now, we are ready! Concerning the first nine weeks of school regarding grammar for high school, here are my parts of speech lessons.
Week One: Pretest/ Nouns
Considering high school grammar, I know that my students’ experiences and knowledge greatly varies. Therefore, I start with a pretest. Then I take information from the language pretest and divide it into areas for improvement. Next, I divide students who need more help with prepositions, conjunctions, verbs, modifiers, and on. With grammar lessons for high school students, I want to respect students who already understand the concepts.
Finally, I provide that information to students and tell them that we’ll work to improve those areas. Grammar for high school can be interesting, and I establish early with students that
After the pretest, I begin with direct instruction with nouns. (Note: as I continue these parts of speech lessons, I’m writing about what normally happens. If students understand nouns, for example, we don’t complete lessons over them.)
Students may take notes however they wish—many choose note cards, but some choose flipping books or infographics. Since my high school students feel that the eight parts of speech are “babyish,” I try to give them freedom in certain areas, like with note taking. Then I begin our process that organizes our first weeks of high school grammar:
- I have presentations that outline all of the material concerning parts of speech lessons. All of our assignments branch from that information, and students know to consult that information. We will work through identifying nouns that first week in an assortment of ways: worksheets, task cards, coloring sheets, centers, and grammar manipulations.
- When students arrive on a Monday, I give the direct instruction over the concept. Students practice, often together or with me.
- The following days of the week, we reinforce that skill. It might be direct grammar materials, but it might also be through vocabulary or mentor sentences. When students complete an assignment (for instance in week one, nouns), they move onto the area I’ve told them to study from their pretest. (This is also another option for when they finish their other class work.)
- Finally, I focus on differentiation. For example students work on prepositions, conjunctions, verbs, or modifiers as extension work. Sometimes they have a specific exercise, like reviewing an online website or a Powerpoint I gave them. Other times, they practice their additional skill with the noun practice; they simply highlight that concept in a new color.
- Another option for differentiation (that I base on that pretest) is for me to sit with different groups. Students who need to practice prepositions, for example, benefit from a quick review with me. Since they struggled in that area on the pretest, I don’t worry about their being bored during the direct instruction in subsequent weeks.
At this point in their schooling, these students have experienced numerous parts of speech lessons. They still need review, and by giving them extra practice, I’m hoping they see success with this.
NOTE! I repeat this format for direct instruction and practice in the following weeks. If students begin to excel with their extra practice (from the pretest), I will switch the high school grammar activities out.
Week Two: Pronouns, not relative pronouns
Pronouns: so many of them! Part of high school English grammar must include a discussion over pronouns and their changing role in language.
My students make anchor charts of pronouns. I practice all pronouns except relative pronouns with students. I cover indefinite, personal, compound personal, interrogative, and demonstrative. (Whew.) When I have students and parents especially concerned about upcoming college entrance exams, I remind them that these parts of speech lessons with a focus on pronouns is important.
I acknowledge this is tons of material, and that is why we cover it so early. I remind students that for subject-verb agreement (especially with indefinite pronouns), they will need to know them.
When learning large chunks like pronouns, I’ve found it helpful to both continuously find those pronouns in other areas of class, and to also explain to students why they will use that information later.
Week Three: Verbs
Students must be able to locate a verb, and they must know the difference between an action and linking verb. I once taught verbs after adjectives, but to reinforce both nouns and pronouns, I switched. (As you continue building your high school grammar lessons you’ll discover what works best for you.)
With verbs, I tell students they must memorize linking verbs. I help them: you can read how I “act out” verbs. This really sticks, and students run through that process when deciding if a verb is a linking or action one.
I consult with students who were already working on verbs and see if they need more practice, or if they would like to get a new Powerpoint/ practice goals for a new part of speech. This gives them a choice in the situation.
Week Four: Adjectives and Adverbs
For modifiers, we have two direct instruction days. We cover adjectives and practice with nouns and pronouns. Normally on Wednesday, we have direct instruction over adverbs. This creates a loop of practice of everything we have studies so far.
I continue to consult with students about their pretest practice. I start switching students, assigning new Powerpoints and practice sheets based on what they feel they need. As we continue, students are often all reviewing different concepts at different times. Grammar for high school students has many moving pieces, and parts of speech lessons probably won’t be linear.
Week Five: Prepositions, with more adjectives and adverbs review
Most students find prepositions easy once they familiarize themselves with the list. They even find prepositions fun; they are amazed at how many we use in our writing and speaking. (My free grammar lessons contain a specific activity for prepositions.) Finally, teaching prepositions with high school grammar allows me to build on prior knowledge and connect grammar to writing. Overall, students do well with prepositions.
The biggest part of studying prepositions is to find the objects, which then loops back to nouns and pronouns. Older students must identify prepositional phrases for proper punctuation. Whenever I think ahead (connections to writing or punctuation) during parts of speech lessons, I’m sure to explain that to students.
Week Six: Conjunctions, not subordinating conjunctions
Much like pronouns, I don’t teach all conjunctions the first week; I cover all except for subordinating conjunctions. Most students understand FANBOYS and will recognize the pieces of correlative conjunctions. (I give them the visual that they are puzzle pieces, and they must find the missing piece of the puzzle.)
After student see the sentence format for conjunctive adverbs, they are comfortable with them. When students have trouble with conjunctions, I have them keep the lists on their desks as we practice.
Of course, conjunctions join the previously studied parts of speech, and I will add on quick practice. Ask students to identify what is joined or to label all the nouns (for example) in their sentences.
Week Seven: Subordinating conjunctions, subjects
This week, I already start review, but I add in subordinating conjunctions. Students write those and keep that list on their desks. In our final assessments, I do not test over those just yet. Students struggle with those, so I give them extra time for mastery.
I will often walk students through finding the subordinating conjunctions, and then we will find the conjunction’s subject (a noun or a pronoun) and verb. We will discuss if the noun, pronoun, and verb have any modifiers.
Week Eight: “Big Picture”
I mention interjections, which normally takes five minutes. If you want to have a bit of fun with high school grammar, ask students to punctuate and write some interjections. Students feel successful, and that’s a nice ending to the direct instruction for parts of speech lessons.
We start to put all of the parts of speech lessons together, more so than we have in previous weeks. I run through sentences with students and demonstrate how they can now label each word in a sentence.
I will also have students write sentences for me, and I will deconstruct them. That is actually a practice I continue all year; students try to “stump” me with difficult sentences to label. (You can use my free grammar lessons to start discussions.) Often, this week includes honest discussions about the purpose of high school grammar activities: We are building a foundation, we are gaining perspective, and we are connecting language to other parts of our lives.
Week Nine: Reviews and Assessments
We have final assessments, some of which might float into the tenth week dependent upon holidays. My favorite is to bring in food and analyze the ways language is used in real life. (Plus the kids get to eat.) Analyzing food goes beyond an eight parts of speech lesson, but if students are ready for application and analysis, diving into marketing is an authentic assessment.
Next, we move onto parts of a sentence, but as I like to tell students, they already have the foundation for that. They are looking at the language in a new way with different purposes. They have the foundation: the eight parts of speech.
And, that is a very quick overview of my high school grammar lessons for the first quarter of school! Don’t forget to download my free grammar lessons to use the entire school year.
- Build the grammar lessons. Week one, we study nouns, but we never stop studying them. We identify nouns in relation to adjectives, in the stories we read, and in the vocabulary we study.
- A message I always send students is that grammar is like building blocks. We’re laying the foundation. I trust that they know nouns, and we continue to study them. You can watch this free video that details how I talk to students about the “big picture” of grammar.
- I don’t ignore subjects and verbs. Older students know those terms. When we identify verbs, I ask students to find the subject – which is probably reviewing nouns and pronouns.
- I do expect all students to have a grasp of the eight parts of speech, and I encourage students to teach each other. Older students can show each other tricks and develop anchor charts for the class. Since they are older, I give them as much ownership as possible.
- Again, I never stop talking about the parts of speech. I make it a point to mention if an author uses an abundance of prepositional phrases, or repeats a noun, or is vague with pronoun use. Students should realize that grammar filters into all parts of an ELA class!
This is everything I use for the first quarter, or the first nine weeks with my grammar lessons.
Please (please!) take what you can use from this outline and make it your own. I hope this provides a base for those first months of school as you build grammar lessons for high school students.
Do you still have questions about grammar for high school, general grammar lessons, and parts of speech lessons? Join us at Grammar Gurus. It’s a private Facebook page full of helpful teachers who are devoted to teaching grammar in meaningful ways.